Ptosis or Drooping Eyelids
Abnormal dropping of one or both upper eyelids. Drooping of the upper eyelid due to weakness of
the muscle that raise it is called ptosis.
The condition may be the result of a problem
with the muscle or nerve that controls the eyelid. The sagging lid may partly or
totally close the eye. One or both eye may be affected.
most cases, it is caused by either a weakness of the
levator muscle, or a problem with the nerve that sends messages to the muscle.
may occur for several reasons such as:
Disease - If ptosis starts suddenly, it may be due to the
brain tumour or a defective blood vessel in the brain. If you develop ptosis,
see your doctor to rule out a serious underlying disorder.
Diabetes can also
lead to muscle weakness (muscular
Birth defect - Ptosis is occasionally present from birth. If a
baby's eyelid droops and it covers the pupil, his or her vision may not develop
normally and early treatment in vital.
Previous eye surgery
Ptosis in adults can
occur as a part of the
aging process, or it may be a symptom of myasthenia
gravis, which cause progressive muscle weakness.
A mechanical defect caused by anything that
increases the weight of the lid, such as a
cyst or swelling
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
The causes of ptosis are quite diverse.
symptoms are dependent on the underlying problem and may include:
Difficulty closing the eye completely
Eye fatigue from straining to keep eye(s)
Children may tilt head backward in order to
lift the lid
Crossed or misaligned eye
When examining a patient with a droopy lid,
one of the first concerns is to determine the underlying cause.
The doctor will
measure the height of the eyelid, strength of the eyelid muscles, and evaluate
eye movements and alignment Children may require additional vision testing for amblyopia.
cases, surgery is performed to strengthen or tighten the levator muscle and lift
If the levator muscle is especially weak, the lid and eye
Ptosis in babies can be corrected by surgically
tightening the eyelid muscle. If treatment is carried out early, the child's
vision should develop normally.
In adults, surgery for ptosis should be carried
out only after any possible significant underlying disorders have been ruled
out. Surgery is very effective for ptosis caused by the aging process.
For patients with minimal ptosis (2 mm or less) there are three viable options:
(1) Müller's muscle conjunctival resection, (2) Fasanella-Servat, or (3) levator
Dated 16 September 2014